Friday, June 29, 2012

Edgar Allan Poe


Edgar Allan Poe lahir di Boston, Massachusetts, pada tanggal 19 Januari 1809. Poe's father and mother, both professional actors, died before the poet was three and John and Frances Allan raised him as a foster child in Richmond, Virginia. Poe ayah dan ibu, keduanya aktor profesional, meninggal sebelum penyair berumur tiga tahun dan Yohanes dan Frances Allan mengangkat dia sebagai anak angkat di Richmond, Virginia. John Allan, a prosperous tobacco exporter, sent Poe to the best boarding schools and later to the University of Virginia, where Poe excelled academically. John Allan, eksportir tembakau yang sejahtera, dikirim Poe ke sekolah asrama terbaik dan kemudian ke University of Virginia, di mana Poe unggul secara akademis. After less than one year of school, however, he was forced to leave the University when Allan refused to pay his gambling debts. Setelah kurang dari satu tahun di sekolah, bagaimanapun, ia terpaksa meninggalkan University ketika Allan menolak untuk membayar utang judi.

Poe returned briefly to Richmond, but his relationship with Allan deteriorated. Poe kembali sebentar ke Richmond, tetapi hubungannya dengan Allan memburuk. In 1827, he moved to Boston and enlisted in the United States Army. Pada 1827, ia pindah ke Boston dan mendaftarkan diri di Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat. His first collection of poems, Tamerlane, and Other Poems , was published that year. Pertamanya kumpulan puisi, Timur Lenk, and Other Poems, diterbitkan pada tahun itu. In 1829, he published a second collection entitled Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems . Pada 1829, ia menerbitkan sebuah koleksi kedua berjudul Al Aaraaf, Timur Lenk, dan Minor Puisi. Neither volume received significant critical or public attention. Volume suara yang diterima tidak signifikan kritis atau perhatian publik. Following his Army service, Poe was admitted to the United States Military Academy, but he was again forced to leave for lack of financial support. Setelah layanan Angkatan Darat, Poe diterima di Akademi Militer Amerika Serikat, tapi ia kembali terpaksa meninggalkan karena kurangnya dukungan finansial. He then moved into the home of his aunt, Mrs. Maria Clemm and her daughter Virginia, in Baltimore, Maryland. Ia kemudian pindah ke rumah bibinya, Ibu Maria Clemm dan putrinya Virginia, di Baltimore, Maryland.

Poe began to sell short stories to magazines at around this time, and, in 1835, he became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. Poe mulai menjual cerita-cerita pendek untuk majalah-majalah di sekitar waktu ini, dan, pada tahun 1835, ia menjadi editor Sastra Selatan Messenger di Richmond. He brought his aunt and twelve-year-old cousin, Virginia Clemm, with him to Richmond. Dia membawa bibi dan dua belas tahun sepupunya, Virginia Clemm, dengan dia ke Richmond. He married Virginia in 1836. Dia menikah Virginia pada 1836. Over the next ten years, Poe would edit a number of literary journals including the Burton's Gentleman's Magazine and Graham's Magazine in Philadelphia and the Broadway Journal in New York City. Selama sepuluh tahun berikutnya, Poe akan mengedit sejumlah jurnal sastra termasuk Burton's Gentleman's Magazine dan Graham's Magazine di Philadelphia dan Journal Broadway di New York City. It was during these years that he established himself as a poet, a short-story writer, and an editor. Itu selama tahun-tahun yang ia membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang penyair, penulis cerita pendek, dan editor. He published some of his best-known stories and poems including "The Fall of the House of Usher," "The Tell-Tale Heart," "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," and "The Raven." Ia menerbitkan beberapa dari paling terkenal cerita dan puisi, termasuk "The Fall of the House of Usher," "The Tell-Tale Heart," "The Pembunuhan di Rue Morgue," dan "The Raven." After Virginia's death from tuberculosis in 1847, Poe's life-long struggle with depression and alcoholism worsened. Setelah Virginia kematian akibat TBC pada tahun 1847, hidup Poe perjuangan panjang dengan depresi dan alkoholisme memburuk. He returned briefly to Richmond in 1849 and then set out for an editing job in Philadelphia. Ia kembali sebentar ke Richmond pada tahun 1849 dan kemudian ditetapkan untuk pekerjaan pengeditan di Philadelphia. For unknown reasons, he stopped in Baltimore. Untuk alasan yang tidak diketahui, ia berhenti di Baltimore. On October 3, 1849, he was found in a state of semi-consciousness. Pada tanggal 3 Oktober 1849, ia ditemukan dalam keadaan setengah sadar. Poe died four days later of "acute congestion of the brain." Poe meninggal empat hari kemudian dari "kemacetan akut otak."

Poe's work as an editor, a poet, and a critic had a profound impact on American and international literature. Poe bekerja sebagai seorang editor, seorang penyair, dan kritikus itu berdampak besar di Amerika dan sastra internasional. His stories mark him as one of the originators of both horror and detective fiction. Ceritanya tandai sebagai salah satu dari kedua originators kengerian dan detektif fiksi. Many anthologies credit him as the "architect" of the modern short story. Banyak kredit antologi dirinya sebagai "arsitek" dari cerita pendek modern. He was also one of the first critics to focus primarily on the effect of the style and of the structure in a literary work; as such, he has been seen as a forerunner to the "art for art's sake" movement.

Dia juga salah satu pengkritik untuk berfokus terutama pada efek dari gaya dan struktur dalam karya sastra; karena itu, ia telah dilihat sebagai pendahulu kepada "seni demi seni" gerakan. French Symbolists such as Mallarmé and Rimbaud claimed him as a literary precursor. Baudelaire spent nearly fourteen years translating Poe into French. Symbolists Perancis seperti Mallarmé dan Rimbaud mengklaim dirinya sebagai pendahulu sastra. Baudelaire menghabiskan hampir empat belas tahun Poe menerjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Prancis. Today, Poe is remembered as one of the first American writers to become a major figure in world literature. Hari ini, Poe dikenang sebagai salah satu penulis Amerika pertama untuk menjadi seorang tokoh besar di dunia sastra.

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